new vocabulary words for lesson 11
(general rule: some consonants delete before i, and the two vowels become one long vowel.)
This lesson is how to talk about what didn’t, doesn’t, or won’t happen or what you don’t do or shouldn’t do. All about negatives.
An interesting set of rules as described by Ultan (in his dissertation): the h of -meh turns into vowel length before i, but then the i disappears after a vowel.
-me(h) is a class 7 thematic suffix,
meaning that it will occur after some locational-directional suffixes
(classes 1-6) but before tense and other class 8-10 suffixes and the various
inflectional suffixes such as person and number.
(See the Verb Chart and review Lesson 6 “The Konkow Verb” if needed.)
Say the following sentences out loud. Then turn them into negative sentences by adding -meh (or -me if it comes before a vowel) in the appropriate place in the word.
Remember, -me(h) will come after the root and before any inflectional suffixes, such as the verb ending -(i)n. If you come across a suffix and don’t know whether it’s thematic or inflectional, look it up Lesson 6 “The Konkow Verb”
The negative suffix -me(h) can also be used in commands.
(The second person suffix -no becomes -ny when the previous vowel is y.)
The prohibitive suffix -by can also be used for first or third person too, which usually translates as “shouldn’t” or “better not.”
Using the following roots, say them (and write them if you want to) as negative commands, using the -by form. (Review Lesson 9 on person and number marking if needed.):
There is a word that can be used at the very end of these negative commands to make them stronger. It occurs nowhere else except in words that have the -by suffix, and it comes after the number and person suffixes. It adds emphasis to the command, something like “I really mean it!!!”