NOUN SUFFIXES CHART

Component
Gloss
Class Description
-be(h)
little
Class 1 Thematic suffixes
-mi: ~ -mmi
negative
Class 1 Thematic suffixes
-dik’y
close.to
Class 1 Thematic suffixes
-je
he, that
Class 1 Thematic suffixes
-ky
agent
Class 1 Thematic suffixes
-ky
instrument
Class 1 Thematic suffixes
-kymmi:
before
Class 1 Thematic suffixes
-la
noun formant
Class 1 Thematic suffixes
-m
nominalizer
Class 1 Thematic suffixes
-ma
instrument
Class 1 Thematic suffixes
-n
?
Class 1 Thematic suffixes
-na(h)
side.of, general.area, those.or.my.area
Class 1 Thematic suffixes
-pe
attribute
Class 1 Thematic suffixes
-pe
attribute
Class 1 Thematic suffixes
-pe
attribute
Class 1 Thematic suffixes
-si
attribute
Class 1 Thematic suffixes
-h
plural
Class 2 Thematic suffixes - distributives
-j
plural
Class 2 Thematic suffixes - distributives
-j
noun.formant
Class 2 Thematic suffixes - distributives
-kyto
group
Class 2 Thematic suffixes - distributives
-c’ok’
dual
Class 3 Inflection-number
-ma:
dual
Class 3 Inflection-number
-sa:
dual
Class 3 Inflection-number
-nono
plural
Class 3 Inflection-number
-me
plural
Class 3 Inflection-number
-se
plural
Class 3 Inflection-number
-tyty, -pypy
plural
Class 3 Inflection-number
-k’i
plural
Class 3 Inflection-number
-p’y
plural
Class 3 Inflection-number
-pa:
plural
Class 3 Inflection-number
-pa: ~ -pa(j)
plural
Class 3 Inflection-number
-(i)m
subject
Class 4 Inflection-case
-(i)m
equivalent.nouns
Class 4 Inflection-case
-(i)m
nominative
Class 4 Inflection-case
-(i)m
noun.opposition.to.subject
Class 4 Inflection-case
-(i)m
adverbial.absolute
Class 4 Inflection-case
Ø
subject
Class 4 Inflection-case
-i
direct.object.verbal.action
Class 4 Inflection-case
-i
indirect.object
Class 4 Inflection-case
-i
vocative
Class 4 Inflection-case
-i
adverbial
Class 4 Inflection-case
Ø
object
Class 4 Inflection-case
-k’i
possessor
Class 4 Inflection-case
-k’i
passive.agent
Class 4 Inflection-case
-k’i
possessed.action
Class 4 Inflection-case
-di
at
Class 4 Inflection-case
-di
toward
Class 4 Inflection-case
-di
while.doing
Class 4 Inflection-case
-di
instrumental
Class 4 Inflection-case
-k’an
with
Class 4 Inflection-case
-ni
by.means.of
Class 4 Inflection-case
-ni
by.means.of
Class 4 Inflection-case
-nak
to, toward
Class 4 Inflection-case
-nak
indirect.object
Class 4 Inflection-case
-nak
length.of.time
Class 4 Inflection-case
-nak
number.formant
Class 4 Inflection-case
-na:
motion.away
Class 4 Inflection-case
-na
from.belong.to
Class 4 Inflection-case
-hoj
close.to
Postfixes
-huj
close.to
Postfixes
-ku:
just, only
Postfixes
-ky
just, only
Postfixes
-pikn
just, only
Postfixes
-te(h)
emphasis
Postfixes
-te(h)
always
Postfixes
-te(h)
comisserative
Postfixes
-te(h)
indefinite.reference
Postfixes
-im2
relational
Postfixes
Component
Gloss
Full Gloss
-(i)m
subject
identifies subject of the verb. zero after pronoun ník.
-(i)m
equivalent.nouns
marks both equivalent nouns in equational sentances
-(i)m
nominative
used as a naming case or nominative
-(i)m
noun.opposition.to.subject
identifies a noun or noun phrase in apposition to the subject.
-(i)m
adverbial.absolute
used as an adverbial absolute to express temporal or locative condition.
-be(h)
little
diminutive, little or cute version ie. doggie or horsie
-c’ok’
dual
dual
-di
at
locative
-di
toward
motion toward a goal
-di
while.doing
temporal status in absolute constructions
-di
instrumental
used to describe the instrument of verbal action
-dik’y
close.to
rather close to
-h
plural
plural
-hoj
close.to
near, close to This is usually between number (class 3) and case (class 4), rarely after case. Rethink whether it's really a postfix.
-huj
close.to
Variant of -hoJ near, close to
-i
direct.object.verbal.action
identifies direct object of verbal action or condition
-i
indirect.object
indicates indirect object of verbal action.
-i
vocative
vocative
-i
adverbial
serves as an adverbial absolute. Ultan's examples here need to be reviewed. Maybe not actually illustrative of {I}
-im2
relational
attributive; "compounding suffix"; occurs at end of each word in a noun phrase except the last word, which is the head noun
-j
plural
plural
-j
noun.formant
noun formant
-je
he, that
demonstrative suffix (occurs only with demonstratives mo, my)
-k’an
with
comitative
-k’i
plural
plural (only after máj (child))
-k’i
possessor
possessive - possessor of the referent noun
-k’i
passive.agent
passive agent
-k’i
possessed.action
possessive with a locative suffix means that an action or condition is possessed.
-ku:
just, only
emphatic
-ky
agent
agentive
-ky
instrument
instrument by means of which an action is formed
-ky
just, only
emphatic. variant of ky . Only LS used ku:, but also used ky.
-kymmi:
before
before, prior to, without…
-kyto
group
collective, group of animate beings
-la
noun formant
noun formant indeterminate meaning
-m
nominalizer
nominalizer
-ma
instrument
near synonymous with ky, used to derive nouns from verb stems
-ma:
dual
dual after mín, second person
-me
plural
plural (only after min 'you')
-mi: ~ -mmi
negative
variants of me(h), negative
-n
?
unidentifiable suffix
-na:
motion.away
ablative, expresses motion away from
-na
from.belong.to
denotes source of origin
-na(h)
side.of, general.area, those.or.my.area
side (of), general area, relatives, friends
-nak
to, toward
motion toward a goal
-nak
indirect.object
indirect object
-nak
length.of.time
temoporally
-nak
number.formant
how numbers in the teens are formed
-ni
by.means.of
denotes an instrument by which an action is performed
-ni
by.means.of
denotes manner in which main verb referent is performed
-nono
plural
plural for non-human references, and also afterc'íla:k' 'baby' and kýla:te 'young girl'. (nono can also occur after the plural allomorphs p'y and p'aJ.)
Ø
subject
subject is Ø after nik and min
Ø
object
after the pronouns nìk and mín, the -I object marker is not added
-p’y
plural
plural (only after kóle(h) (boy); in a few recorded instances, p'y occurs before /h/ or /j/ (class 2)
-pa:
plural
plural (after all human nouns except boy and after -kyto 'group' animate collective)
-pa: ~ -pa(j)
plural
LS uses paJ after human nouns except boy, girl and old man
-pe
attribute
attributive - qualitative, passive, active
-pe
attribute
attributive - locational before locative suffixes
-pe
attribute
attributive - expressing passive notions
-pikn
just, only
emphatic, synonymous with ku:
-sa:
dual
dual after other pronouns/demonstratives
-se
plural
plural (after pronouns & demonstratives except min)
-si
attribute
nominalizer (rare)
-te(h)
emphasis
particularized emphatic
-te(h)
always
refers to emphatic repetition of habit
-te(h)
comisserative
commiserative
-te(h)
indefinite.reference
has indefinite reference (not clearly an emphatic
-tyty, -pypy
plural
plural (only after té(h) 'young animal')
Component
Gloss
Full Gloss
-n
?
unidentifiable suffix
-i
adverbial
serves as an adverbial absolute. Ultan's examples here need to be reviewed. Maybe not actually illustrative of {I}
-(i)m
adverbial.absolute
used as an adverbial absolute to express temporal or locative condition.
-ky
agent
agentive
-te(h)
always
refers to emphatic repetition of habit
-di
at
locative
-pe
attribute
attributive - qualitative, passive, active
-pe
attribute
attributive - locational before locative suffixes
-pe
attribute
attributive - expressing passive notions
-si
attribute
nominalizer (rare)
-kymmi:
before
before, prior to, without…
-ni
by.means.of
denotes an instrument by which an action is performed
-ni
by.means.of
denotes manner in which main verb referent is performed
-dik’y
close.to
rather close to
-hoj
close.to
near, close to This is usually between number (class 3) and case (class 4), rarely after case. Rethink whether it's really a postfix.
-huj
close.to
Variant of -hoJ near, close to
-te(h)
comisserative
commiserative
-i
direct.object.verbal.action
identifies direct object of verbal action or condition
-c’ok’
dual
dual
-ma:
dual
dual after mín, second person
-sa:
dual
dual after other pronouns/demonstratives
-te(h)
emphasis
particularized emphatic
-(i)m
equivalent.nouns
marks both equivalent nouns in equational sentances
-na
from.belong.to
denotes source of origin
-kyto
group
collective, group of animate beings
-je
he, that
demonstrative suffix (occurs only with demonstratives mo, my)
-te(h)
indefinite.reference
has indefinite reference (not clearly an emphatic
-i
indirect.object
indicates indirect object of verbal action.
-nak
indirect.object
indirect object
-ky
instrument
instrument by means of which an action is formed
-ma
instrument
near synonymous with ky, used to derive nouns from verb stems
-di
instrumental
used to describe the instrument of verbal action
-ku:
just, only
emphatic
-ky
just, only
emphatic. variant of ky . Only LS used ku:, but also used ky.
-pikn
just, only
emphatic, synonymous with ku:
-nak
length.of.time
temoporally
-be(h)
little
diminutive, little or cute version ie. doggie or horsie
-na:
motion.away
ablative, expresses motion away from
-mi: ~ -mmi
negative
variants of me(h), negative
-m
nominalizer
nominalizer
-(i)m
nominative
used as a naming case or nominative
-la
noun formant
noun formant indeterminate meaning
-j
noun.formant
noun formant
-(i)m
noun.opposition.to.subject
identifies a noun or noun phrase in apposition to the subject.
-nak
number.formant
how numbers in the teens are formed
Ø
object
after the pronouns nìk and mín, the -I object marker is not added
-k’i
passive.agent
passive agent
-h
plural
plural
-j
plural
plural
-nono
plural
plural for non-human references, and also afterc'íla:k' 'baby' and kýla:te 'young girl'. (nono can also occur after the plural allomorphs p'y and p'aJ.)
-me
plural
plural (only after min 'you')
-se
plural
plural (after pronouns & demonstratives except min)
-tyty, -pypy
plural
plural (only after té(h) 'young animal')
-k’i
plural
plural (only after máj (child))
-p’y
plural
plural (only after kóle(h) (boy); in a few recorded instances, p'y occurs before /h/ or /j/ (class 2)
-pa:
plural
plural (after all human nouns except boy and after -kyto 'group' animate collective)
-pa: ~ -pa(j)
plural
LS uses paJ after human nouns except boy, girl and old man
-k’i
possessed.action
possessive with a locative suffix means that an action or condition is possessed.
-k’i
possessor
possessive - possessor of the referent noun
-im2
relational
attributive; "compounding suffix"; occurs at end of each word in a noun phrase except the last word, which is the head noun
-na(h)
side.of, general.area, those.or.my.area
side (of), general area, relatives, friends
-(i)m
subject
identifies subject of the verb. zero after pronoun ník.
Ø
subject
subject is Ø after nik and min
-nak
to, toward
motion toward a goal
-di
toward
motion toward a goal
-i
vocative
vocative
-di
while.doing
temporal status in absolute constructions
-k’an
with
comitative
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