lesson 1: sounds and letters

vocabulary

ʔàkym and
salt
c’íc’i rib
c'ýk'è:ti cricket
ʔə́:k'ə raccoon
émuli black
héno coyote
hípindi above
hoʔoli rale, lung sound
name
já: sky
jémpo: young man
kə́lkəli pine cone
kójo: garden, meadow
kó: snow
kóleh boy
k’úmi roundhouse
májdy man or person
mínwete all by yourself
mómi water
nímwete all by myself
péky food, anything you eat
p'ó:t'i feather
fire
séwi river
solim song
t’óje bring something
tútu child, son
ʔú:ti acorn
wénnem It's medicine.
lesson 2: commands

vocabulary

verb roots and themes
bája: crack (acorns)
bólopaj help someone
býhbý be still
c’é look, see
c'esy look
c’úk’utʔòmisto you wash yourself!
húpajtì build (a fire)
hú:c’ik forget
jewo: run
jó:ki(t) dive
k’élc’ono (s/he) hugs (someone)
màhwó: clap hands
makpaj try
mé: grab
drink
pédaw come to eat
sól sing
tédo: stand up
tuji sleep
wóc’oti split a notch in something
ʔýhjoʔe: be careful
ʔýk’oj go away
ʔỳsí get out
nouns
májk’i children
fire
ʔuti acorn
verb suffixes
-be encouragement, permission, be sure to do something
-p imperative singular - command to one person
-sy, -k’uton imperative future - command to more than one person to do something later. You can use either one.
-wa imperative plural - command to two or more persons
Special terms
component any part of a word - the root or a suffix
imperatives commands; telling someone to do something
noun a word referring to a “person, place, or thing” - the person or item that is doing the action of the verb or has the action of the verb done to them.
root the part of the word containing the main meaning - like ‘person,’ ‘help,’, ‘big’.
suffix endings that get put on the end of a word. Also called verb suffixes, noun suffixes, etc.
theme commands; a root plus certain suffixes that add to the meaning of the root. The imperative suffixes can be added at the end of either a root or a theme.
verb a word referring to an action or behavior
lesson 3: konkow noun

vocabulary

noun roots
búlalàj black bear
c’á: tree, stick
c’íla:ka baby
jý:py woman, teenage girl
konoj girl
kýlate daughter
lá:se axe
léle red-tailed hawk
móm water
sý: dog
Ɂuj house
verb roots
símyhmyh talk
máhwo clap hands
Ɂỳno walk
noun suffixes
-beh, be: little (before k or k’, the h disappears and the vowel gets long.)
-c’ok’ two
-dyki rather close to (locative case)
-k’an with (comitative case)
-k’i possessor (“his,” etc.)
-kyto group of
-na: away from
-nak motion toward a goal
-nono plural (3 or more)
processes
deletion object case, i object suffix disappears when it follows a vowel.
reduplication repeating part of a root or suffix twice in a row, usually to show that an action is occurring over and over.
lesson 4: simple sentences

vocabulary

Verb roots you will see an -n added at the end of these roots in this lesson
bojehto swing
c’ésy looked at
k'útumbùmbukk'ajeh go about hunting
mé: grab
eat
pípa: swim
só: release
noun roots you will see an -m added at the end of these roots when they are the subject of the sentence.
ʔa:k’ crow
ʔákc’olma Pacific Pond turtle
héno coyote
hènojká:no Old Man Coyote (in stories)
jý:py teenage girl, woman
ká:no old man, fellow
kónojbe girl (younger than teen)
kýle woman, wife
màjdy man, person
máko: fish
sól song
sým deer
wóc’olky turtle - (species of, in Turtle Girls story)

Suffixes are meaningful pieces added after noun or verb roots. The dash in front is the standard way of showing they are suffixes. When we analyze a word we will show dashes between the parts of the word.

verb suffixes
-n, -in marks the end of a verb
Noun suffixes
-i marks a noun as the object of the sentence
-m, -im marks a noun as the subject of the sentence
lesson 5: describing nouns

vocabulary

Verb roots
káto to play
mé: to grab
c'e to see
ʔetitin (it) is green
Noun roots
týtyk grove
ʔákc’olma turtle
ʔo: rock
séwi river
býsa: cane
kóle: boy
Describing words
hél, hélpe big
jábe: young
ʔétiti green
ʔékylkyl bluish
síʔypè playful
wýkte one
péne two
Noun suffixes
-m shows that the word describes the “star” noun
-kan with
Demonstratives
ʔáma that
myje that

distinctions between these two "thats"
will be described in Lesson 6

lesson 6: konkow verb

vocabulary

sentences and words
bája:tìtoton crack acorns for one another
bánotìp! Make his bed! (i.e. Make his bed for him.)
bǝdǝ:tin make someone happy
bískitjà:m ? Will you two stay?
bómittìn drive (a nail) into (i.e. make (a nail) go in)
c'úk'utʔòmis! Bathe yourself!
dó:me:p! (or dó:mep!) Don't bite!
jó:ki: dive
lájda:haj ʔýk'ojmehkì:n. I will not leave tomorrow.
láw lift
máhwo clap hands
méj give
méjton buys something (literally 'give something to each other')
moʔósinaj. I drank it up.
mỳsemsa c'í:titòn. They are dressing each other.
pánpemèhki:nàj. I'm not going to smoke.
pédojpỳ. Let's begin to eat.
péton eat something along with something else
píje:n swim about
pínsy listen
pípajin swim toward (someone or something)
písipin swim out (e.g. into deep water)
síʔy play
sólbòsnoméhwonomànc'odéno. You didn't go to finish that song long ago.
tédò:p! Stand up!
wóhboski:n. (He) will finish chopping wood.
wóhjon hit (something) repeatedly
ʔýc'on move over, move over to the edge
ʔýk'ojin go, move along in some direction
ʔýmpintòn come in and out sporadically
ʔýsipin move outward, move out of and up
ʔýtoton go about, move around
verb themes
bojehto swing
píje: swim
tédo: stand up
ʔýc'o move over, move over the edge
ʔýc'opi: come over (a hill) toward here
ʔýk'oj go away, move along in some direction
ʔýsip move outward, move out of and up
ʔýtoto go about, move around
thematic suffixes
-bos, -ʔos finish; to finish doing something
-c'o (move) over, to the edge
-do(j) begin; begin doing something
-jo iterative; doing something over and over
-k'o(j) move away, leave
-ki(t) future; will do
-me(h) negative; not do
-mit into
-pa(j) toward
-pi toward here
-pi(n) move out of and toward
-sip outward; out of and up
-ti (1) cause, make something happen; (2) do something for someone
-to reciprocal, doing something for or with each other
-toto (1) reciprocal; (2) go about, go around
-ʔomis do something to oneself; reflexive

RULE for consonants in parentheses: Remember that a consonant in parentheses means that sometimes it is there, and sometimes not. In general, the consonant disappears if it is just before another consonant which is at the end of the word, and the vowel before it gets longer.

lesson 7: demonstratives

vocabulary

demonstratives
my 3rd person pronoun he, she, it
myje general demonstrative that one
ʔa anaphoric (mentioned before)
ʔama anaphoric demonstrative (that one mentioned before)
mo deictic demonstrative (the one I’m pointing to)
moje demonstrative that one I’m pointing to
héde proximal this, here, now
hódo medial that, there, then, later
húdu distal yon, yonder, much earlier or later
verb roots
eat mé: grab
pípa: swim ʔýdo: climb
bə́də be happy c’é see/look
péska whisper ʔysí get out
wénne be good já:he look around
noun roots
ʔó: rock c'a: tree
kawaja horse
suffixes
-di to, toward, on -j 1st.person (I)
-c’ok’ dual (on nouns) -sa: dual
-paj, -pa plural (human) -nono plural (non-human)
-pa dubitative (maybe)
lesson 8: pronouns

vocabulary

Verb roots
bojehto swing c’e see
hémnon read janito tell
jó:ki: dive méjin give
mýtʔa roast píje: swim
wóti catch.fish
Noun roots
c’ámmi: knife k’o:doj place
màko: fish sol song
other
ʔàdiky then dòw commit
k’ána:n bottom.under kàni and, then
verb suffixes
-an say -bo encouragement
-c’o must have -(i)n verb final
-kì:(t) future.finish -man must have
-p imperative -s allow.let
-toto move.about
noun suffixes
-ky agent
pronouns
mi you mímem you dual subject
mima: you dual mímem you plural object
míme you plural mink’i your, yours
mink’an with you mima:k’i your, yours dual
mimek’i your, yours pl. mìhani you
mìhano you mìnaj I to or with you
my him, her, it mỳhaj I to him/her
mym he, she, it mysa: them dual
mysa:m they dual mysá:ki their, theirs dual
myse them plural mysek’i they plural
mysem they plural ni I
nìhaj I nik me
nik’i my nikk’an with me
nísa: us dual nísam we dual subject
lesson 9: person, number marking

vocabulary

verb roots
bájah crack.acorns bís alive
c'é see ke laugh
k'ów lie lúmit fish with line
nédi: dream eat
péske whisper só:do carry it
sól sing t'íkti quit
we knock.down wéwe speak
ʔýdo: climb ʔýno go
noun roots
mimem you.plural.subject my that
my he I
ʔó: rock p'ák branch
sàwwal squirrel sól song
ʔu:ti acorn
other
ʔakym and.then ʔàmam that
wáh! Wow! wóltim many-relational
verb suffixes
-ʔati do -bè permission
-bỳ prohibit -c'o hearsay (they say)
-dà question -dè questioning
-doj begin -(i)s 1st.person on main verb, after a consonant
-j 1st.person on helping verb -ja: dual (2 people) number marked on verbs
-je plural (3 or more) number marked on verbs -koj move.away, go, away
-m subject -m 2nd.person
-m past -man must.have
-mo, -m 2nd.person 'you' after a dual or plural -no, -ni 2nd.person, singular
-n verb.final -n neutral
-ni you singular -no you singular
-no 2nd.person -no along
-pa maybe -s 1st.person after a vowel
-s emphatic -sa: dual on pronouns
-sa subj.extender -sa habitual
-tà emphatic -to reciprocal suffix implies a dual or plural subject without showing it
-to reciprocal -t'a on.top
Ø 3rd.person “he, she” (that is, nothing, no suffix)
noun suffixes
-di on -h plural
-se plural on pronouns -im subject
lesson 10: helping verbs

vocabulary

verb roots
bis stay.there use.rock-like.object
bót'ak' ride c'í dress
ha, ma be, do hémno read
hón breath ʔítu have cramps
káj fall k'ólo lack
méji give túj sleep
noun roots
c'á: tree c'úk'u acorn soup
k'ámi belly kaw ground
káwaju horse
pronouns
mi(n) you my him/her
ni I
pronoun + helping verb combinations
mihano you mihani you
minaj I to you mỳhaj I to him
mynaj I to him/her nihaj I
other
homo where ʔati that
néh lots
verb suffixes
-bok'òj unable -bỳ prohibit
-ha to be -(i)s 1st.person on a main verb
-j 1st. person on a helping verb -ja: dual for the helping verb
-jeh continious.action, around -kàs strong emphatic
-ki: down -kì future
-m relational -m past.tense
-ma be, do -mo,-m 2nd.person “you” on verbs
-ni 2nd.person “you” on verbs -no 2nd.person “you” on verbs
-sa habitual -sa used to
-ti cause -wòno long ago
noun suffixes
3rd.person “he, she” (that is, nothing, no suffix) -sa dual for the pronoun